The Crimean Peninsula has a colorful history and has been a hotly contested area throughout history. It has been conquered and settled by a large number of varied cultures.
11th century BC to the 2nd century AD
The recorded history of the Crimean Peninsula, begins around the 5th century BC when several Greek colonies were established along its coast. The southern coast remained Greek in culture for almost two thousand years as part of the Roman Empire (47 BC -330 AD), and its successor states, the Byzantine Empire (330 AD - 1204 AD), the Empire of Trebizond (1204 AD - 1461 AD), and the independent Principality of Theodoro (ended 1475 AD).
7th to 5th century BCE.
38 BC- 370 AD
- Invasion of the Goths in the 2nd century AD -
(Approximately 500 C.E. to 800 C.E. )
850 C.E. to 965 C.E.
Wikipedia Article >
Empire of Trebizond
Principality of Theodoro
Early 14th century–1475
In the 13th century, although some port cities were controlled by the Venetians and by the Genovese (see above) -- the Crimean interior was much less stable . The interior endured a long series of conquests and invasions; by the early medieval period it had been settled by Scythians, Greeks, Romans, Goths, Huns, Bulgars, Khazars and others.
In the summer of 1238, Batu Khan devastated the Crimea
In the medieval period, it was acquired partly by Kievan Rus', but fell to the Mongol invasions as part of the Golden Horde. They were followed by the Crimean Khanate and the Ottoman Empire, which conquered the coastal areas as well, in the 15th to 18th centuries.
1449 - 1773
The Novorossiysk Governorate ("New Russia") was established in 1764
The modern history of Crimea begins with the annexation by the Russian Empire in 1783. In 1921 the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was created. This republic was dissolved in 1945, and the Crimea became an oblast first of the Russian SSR (1945-1954) and then the Ukrainian SSR (1954-1991).
Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Languages Spoken in the Crimean Peninsula
Since 1991 the territory was covered by the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol City within independent Ukraine. During the 2014 Crimean crisis, independence was declared and a referendum on whether to join Russia was held. The peninsula subsequently was annexed to the Russian Federation as two federal subjects (1) the Republic of Crimea and (2) the federal city of Sevastopol.