Friday, October 23, 2020

Native Americans - New Hampshire

Part 9 of an ongoing series on the history of Native American Territory as told through maps. This series is tagged as "Native American Map Series". It is recommended to visit all the Further Info links listed below for further study.

Native Americans - New Hampshire

For roughly 12,000 years, Indigenous peoples have lived where we now call "New Hampshire." The Abenaki tribe (together with the Maliseet, Passamaquoddy, Mi'kmaq, and Penobscot Indians), were members of the old Wabanaki Confederacy, adversaries of the Iroquois. These allies from the eastern seaboard spoke related languages, and Abenaki and Wabanaki have the same Algonquian root, meaning "people from the east."

The original inhabitants of the area that is now New Hampshire:

Source

There were three important subdivisions of the Abenaki tribe: the Sokoki (or Sokokis), the Cowasuck (Cowass or Coos), and the Missisquoi (or Mazipskwik.) 

Missiquoi Territory within the Larger Territory of the Western Abenaki Tribe

Although there is no local reservation or population center for the Native Americans, their names endure as names for modern-day cities, mountains and rivers:

  • Amonoosuc River ('manosek) – Western Abenaki for "fishing place."
  • Amoskeag Falls (namaskik) – Western Abenaki for "at the fish land."
  • Contoocook River (nikn tekw ok) – Abenaki for "to or from the head or first branch of the river."
  • Grand Monadnock (minoria denak) – Abenaki for "the bare or smooth mountain."
  • Kearsarge (g'wizawajo) – Western Abenaki for "rough mountain."
  • Massabesic Lake (massa nbes ek) – Abenaki for "to the great pond."
  • Merrimack River – Abenaki for "deep water or river."
  • Mount Pisgah – Abenaki for "dark."
  • Nashua– Abenaki for "two."
  • Sunapee Lake – Abenaki for "rock or mountain water."
  • Suncook River – Abenaki for "to the rocks."
  • Umbagog Lake  – Abenaki for "to the clear water lake."
Today
There are no federally recognized Indian tribes in New Hampshire today. Most Native Americans were forced to leave New Hampshire during the 1600's, when eastern tribes were being displaced by colonial expansion. The descendants of Indigenous populations who historically resided in New Hampshire can be found in several surrounding U.S. states and parts of Canada. 

Native Americans - Rhode Island

Part 8 of an ongoing series on the history of Native American Territory as told through maps. This series is tagged as "Native American Map Series". It is recommended to visit all the Further Info links listed below for further study.

Native Americans - Rhode Island

The lands of Rhode Island in the 1600s were mainly inhabited by three Native American tribes. To the east of the Narragansett Bay and the Providence River were the Wampanoags. On the south coast were the Eastern Niantics. The majority of Rhode Island was occupied by the Narragansetts.

The Narragansetts, in 1600, numbered around 4,000. Roger Williams settled among them and, through their favor, was able to found what became the Rhode Island colony in Providence. Although the colonists had peaceful relations with the Narragansetts, by 1675, the number of colonists had grown, pushing the Native Americans to the West. Indian land was seized at fwrfare erupted. Outnumbered and subsequently defeated, the power of the Native American tribes of southern New England was destroyed.

Many male Native American survivors were sold into slavery in the West Indies, while women and children were enslaved in New England. Remaining Narragansetts left the area and now the remainder of the tribe is living near Charlestown. Today, the Narragansetts are the only federally recognized Native American tribe in Rhode Island. Sourced from Native Americans shaped Rhode Island’s history

The original inhabitants of the area that is now Rhode Island: 

Source
Source

Today

The Naragansetts lost control of much of their tribal lands during the  late 19th century but they kept a group identity. The tribe incorporated in 1900 and they regained 1,800 acres of their land in 1978, finally gaining federal recognition as a tribe in 1983. According to tribal rolls, there are approximately 2,400 members of the Narragansett Tribe today. Google Map of Reservation

Native Americans - Massachusetts

Part 7 of an ongoing series on the history of Native American Territory as told through maps. This series is tagged as "Native American Map Series". It is recommended to visit all the Further Info links listed below for further study.

Native Americans - Massachusetts

Did you know the name "Massachusetts" is an Algonquian Indian word? It means "by the range of hills."

Early Contacts with Europeans
Prior to the well known Pilgrim arrival in 1620, the indigenous population had  numerous contacts with European explores along the coast. Starting in 1602, trading  with the Wampanoag and camps on Cape Cod were established.In 1605, French explorers led by Samuel de Champlain explored the Massachusetts coast. In 1605, French explorers led by Samuel de Champlain explored the Massachusetts coast and marveled at the abundant crops of corn, beans, squash, tobacco being cultivated by the Natives.

Disease
Between 1616 and 1619, it is estimated that at least three fourths of the Indian population in Massachusetts died from European epidemic diseases. Some authorities estimate the death toll at 90%.

The Pilgrims
When the Pilgrims arrived in 1620, they encountered few living people but saw evidence of many Indian graves.

Tribal Areas
The original inhabitants of the area that is now Massachusetts:

Source
Source


Statistics on the Catastrophic Population Decline
When the Pilgrims arrived in 1620, they found that much of the former Wampanoag towns had been decimated by a plague that spread through the population in 1617 and 1618.  Entire village had been wiped off the map. 
Source

Thanksgiving

Native American Territory - Maine

Part 6 of an ongoing series on the history of Native American Territory as told through maps. This series is tagged as "Native American Map Series". It is recommended to visit all the Further Info links listed below for further study.

Maine

The four Maine Indian tribes are the Maliseet, Micmac, Penobscot and Passamaquoddy, known collectively as the Wabanaki,

History

"Europeans first arrived in the Gulf of Maine in a series of exploratory voyages lasting roughly from 1524 to 1613. During this century of exploration, three themes emerged with lasting significance for the history of Maine.
  • First, in almost every instance, initial relations between English and Indian deteriorated quickly from friendship to suspicion and hostility, suggesting a deep flaw in English diplomatic approaches.
  • Second, these early voyages projected a false and ultimately dangerous impression of Maine as a New-World paradise where little work would yield great wealth.
  • Third, they laid the basis for overlapping French and English claims to the Wabanaki homeland that precipitated a three-way struggle for supremacy or survival that lasted for another century. These themes – diplomatic failure, false expectations, and imperial claims – explain much about Maine's marginal status as a proprietary colony and later as a province of Massachusetts." Source 

"Plagues that swept through the Indian villages beginning in 1616, killing more than 75 percent of the inhabitants and leaving the rest weakened culturally, spiritually, economically, and militarily. By the middle of the 17th century the Abenaki were living in a nightmarish landscape shaped by conflict, disease, and alcohol, and they turned to the missionaries for help and reassurance."

Summary

Between the late 17th century and the early 19th century, Great Britain, France, and others in Europe engaged in nearly constant warfare. The battles for economic and political power spilled into North America, catching the native populations in the middle. By the time a lasting peace came between France and Britain, European descendants had permanent settlements in North America and the native populations were relegated to the fringes. Source 

Today

Source

Native American Territory - Vermont

Part 5 of an ongoing series on the history of Native American Territory as told through maps. This series is tagged as "Native American Map Series". It is recommended to visit all the Further info links listed below for further study.

Vermont

The original inhabitants of the area that is now Vermont:
Source
Source
About the Abenaki
The Abenaki (also spelled Abnaki or Wabanaki) were an Algonquian-speaking North American Indian tribe that united with other tribes in the 17th century to furnish mutual protection against the Iroquois Confederacy. The name refers to their location “toward the dawn.” In its earliest known form, the Abenaki Confederacy consisted of tribes or bands living east and northeast of present-day New York state, and later the confederacy included some tribes as far south as present-day Delaware. Source

There were three important subdivisions of the Abenaki tribe: the Sokoki (or Sokokis), the Cowasuck (Cowass or Coos), and the Missisquoi (or Mazipskwik.) 

Missiquoi Territory within the Larger Territory of the Western Abenaki Tribe

Today

There are no federally recognized Indian tribes in Vermont today. Most tribes that once were native to Vermont ended up on reservations in Canada. 

Update: 
The Nulhegan Band of the Coosuk Abenaki Nation is nestled in N’dakinna (our homeland), the present-day Northeast Kingdom of Vermont. The tribal headquarters are located in Barton, Vermont.

Native American Territory - Connecticut

Part 4 of an ongoing series on the history of Native American Territory as told through maps. This series is tagged as "Native American Map Series". It is recommended to visit all the Further Info links listed below for further study.

Connecticut

As this Wikipedia page illustrates, there are quite a few places in Connecticut that have names of Native American origin:

  • Natick - Place of Hills
  • Housatonic - translated as "beyond the mountains"
  • Niantic River and Niantic village – For the Niantic tribe, called the Neh├óntick or Quinnipiac River – "long water land".
  • Hammonasset - “where we dig holes in the ground,” a reference to the tribe's agricultural way of life.
  • Aspetuck - "at the high place"
  • Naugatuck - "single tree
  • Shepaug - "great pond"
The various tribes that occupied Connecticut when the Europeans arrive spoke related Algonquian languages.
Iroquois | Algonquian
Map of Connecticut, circa 1625
Indian trails, villages, sachemdoms >
Wikipedia
Sadly due to smallpox and brutal wars and massacres by the white settlers, little remained of Native American population by the 1700s.

Today

Connecticut - American Indian Reservations >
Casinos and Museums
Today one of the most successful Indian Casinos in the country is Foxwoods. The Pequot tribe earnings from this business has enabled them to build a true state of the art museum nearby. A neighboring tribe, the Mohegans, soon followed with their own casino.

Native Americans - New England

Part 3 of an ongoing series on the history of Native American Territory as told through maps. This series is tagged as "Native American Map Series". It is recommended to visit all the Further info links listed below for further study.

Native Americans - New England

The indigenous tribes of the Northeast region of North America were among the first to have extended contact with European colonizers. Though members of numerous and separate tribes, the native people generally fell under the umbrella category of two main groups: Iroquoian and Algonquian. 

Source

Algonquian-speaking tribes lived primarily along the coast in socially and economically stable villages suited to fishing and farming. They were the larger of the two groups. Iroquoian-speaking tribes lived inland in smaller hamlets, near rivers and lakes, and relied on wild food. They tended to be warlike. 

Within both groups, a tribe consisted of several villages or hamlets joined in an alliance, called a confederacy. However, the stabilizing influence of these alliances provided no guarantee of peace among the tribes. Tribes within the Iroquois Confederacy would often raid others outside the protection of their alliance.

Native American settlements and trails in southern New England in the early 1600s
Source

Conflict

The arrival of Europeans and the subsequent spread of their colonies forced changes to the Native American ways of life and intensified the conflict between Iroquoian- and Algonquian-speaking groups. 

Perhaps the most troublesome of these was the concept of land ownership. To Europeans, ownership of land equated to wealth, and the New World seemed to offer unlimited possibilities to become land-rich. The native tribes, however, did not believe an individual could own land in this sense. Land could be used but not possessed, just as air might be used but not owned or kept. When Native Americans first shared the land with settlers, they did not understand that the settlers now would consider that land their property, would build fences, and would bar anyone else from using it.

All Texts Sourced From U.S. History/Northeast: 1620–1730


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