Saturday, January 12, 2019

The Hammond Organ

Ya gotta love Wikipedia -This is fascinating!!

Hammond Organ

The Hammond organ was, invented by Laurens Hammond and John M. Hanert and first manufactured in 1935. Hammond organs generated sound by creating an electric current from rotating a metal tonewheel near an electromagnetic pickup.
  • Hammond was inspired to create the tonewheel or "phonic wheel" by listening to the moving gears of his electric clocks and the tones produced by them.
  • For all its subsequent success with professional musicians, the original company did not target its products at that market, principally because Hammond did not think enough money was in it. 
  • The Hammond Organ Company produced an estimated two million instruments in its lifetime; these have been described as "probably the most successful electronic organs ever made".

Battle of the Organs!

In 1936, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) filed a complaint claiming that the Hammond Company made "false and misleading". Auditory tests that pitted a Hammond costing about $2600 against a $75,000 Skinner pipe organ in the University of Chicago Rockefeller Chapel.[During the auditory tests, sustained tones and excerpts from musical works were played on the electric and pipe organs while a group of musicians and laymen attempted to distinguish between the instruments.

Early customers of the Hammond included Albert Schweitzer, Henry Ford, Eleanor Roosevelt and George Gershwin.

Read about the shortened pedal board, waterfall key, harmonic percussion and the FTC tests!

Tone Wheels

A tonewheel or tone wheel is a simple electromechanical apparatus for generating electric musical notes in electromechanical organ instrument. Details on the mechanics/electronics the make it work:

Laurens Hammond

Laurens Hammond (1895 – 1973), was an American engineer and inventor. His inventions include, most famously, the Hammond organ, the Hammond clock, and the world's first polyphonic musical synthesizer, the Novachord.

His first patent, in 1912, was for a barometer that could sell for one dollar. In 1922, heinvented the Teleview system of shutter glasses in association with 3-D films. Hammond's work on the synchronous motor led him in 1928 to set up the Hammond Clock Company, with six workers, above a grocery store in Chicago. Demand was high and the business soon grew into a large factory. He was responsible for a number of other inventions, such as an electric bridge table.

During World War II, Hammond helped design guided missile control systems, light-sensing devices for bomb guidance, glide-bomb controls, and a new type of gyroscope. The glide bomb was the forerunner of today's guided missile. During his life he held 110 patents!
See also The Forgotten Genius of Laurens Hammond

About the Telharmonium

  • The Telharmonium (also known as the Dynamophone) was an early electrical organ, developed by Thaddeus Cahill circa 1896 and patented way back in 1897… It weighed almost 200 tons! 
  • Performances in New York City (some at "Telharmonic Hall"-39th and Broadway) were well received by the public in 1906, and the performer would sit at a console (see picture) to control the instrument. 
Telharmonium - 1897
  • The actual mechanism of the instrument itself was so large it occupied an entire room — wires from the controlling console were fed discreetly through holes in the floor of an auditorium into the instrument room itself, which was housed in the basement beneath the concert hall.

Friday, January 11, 2019

New York State Breweries

Throughout the last decade, the consumption of craft beer has grown to be a part of New York State's culture.

  • The number of farm-based craft beverage manufacturers in New York continues to soar — with 433 new ones all across the state since 2012.
  • There are now 715 farm wineries, distilleries, cideries and breweries in New York State.
  • That includes 72 farm-based craft beverage manufactures in the Southern Tier, 106 in the Mid-Hudson Valley, and 149 in the Finger Lakes region.
  • New York now also has 42 farm cideries, 123 farm distilleries, 202 farm breweries and 348 farm wineries.
  • The industry, fueled by consumer interest in home-grown alcohol, has benefitted in New York from loosened regulations and new incentives.
  • New York ranks fourth in the nation for the number of wineries; third for the number of breweries; second for the number of craft distilleries and first in the U.S. for the number of hard-cider producers, the state said.  Source (bullet points)

Interactive Bar Chart

Brew New York
Interactive map >

Hudson Valley Magazine (March 2018)
New York Sate Breweries by County >

List of breweries in New York

Tuesday, January 8, 2019

Muslims in America

Did You Know?

Islam has long been part of the tapestry of American identity; the first Muslims were brought here as slaves in the 16th century, many from West Africa. In the New World, 10 to 20 percent of slaves were Muslim, according to scholars.

The first wave of Muslim immigrants in modern history began in the late 1800s; mostly from the Levant, they sought economic opportunities and settled largely in the Midwest. The first mosque was in North Dakota.

Where do they live?

Muslims in the United States are a racially and ethnically diverse group—and a growing one, despite a recent rise in anti-Muslim hostility. From dozens of different countries and representing multiple branches of their faith, Muslims now total about 3.45 million people, or one percent of the U.S. population.
Muslims in America 
With roots dating back to the 16th century, the Muslim population is currently growing faster in suburbs than in cities, especially in southern and western regions. There are now more than 2,100 mosques in the U.S., up from 962 in 1994.

Source Files and Further Info

Saturday, January 5, 2019

How Slavery Expanded Across the United States

By the 1860s, the U.S. had an economic system that kept nearly 4 million people in bondage. Interestingly, a Coast Survey map created and compiled from the 1860 census depicted the percentage of the population enslaved in each county. Abraham Lincoln consulted it throughout the Civil War.
1861 Coast Survey Map
Wikimedia Commons

Slave labor was integral to the plantation economy of the south and of course cotton was one of its main products

The slave population  grew in intensity in places around the Chesapeake Bay, even as slavery was gradually abolished in the North. But for the most part the slave population spread westward to the lands opened for settlement by the Louisiana Purchase, the dispossession of the Indian nations of the Southeast, the war with Mexico, and the distribution of public lands. Slavery spread rather than grew because it was an agricultural rather than industrial form of capitalism, so it needed new lands.

The unceasing spread of slavery provoked political crises, eventually leading to the Civil War. As Abraham Lincoln put it in is 1858 "House Divided" speech:
"Either the opponents of slavery, will arrest the further spread of it, and place it where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is in the course of ultimate extinction; or its advocates will push it forward, till it shall become alike lawful in all the States, old as well as new, North as well as South."

The Deadly Geography of Landslides

Between 2004 and 2010, 2,620 landslides killed a total of 32,322 people worldwide. Rain-driven landslides have killed at least 20,000 since 2007.

As might be expected, the most susceptible parts of the planet for landslides are regions of high altitude, including the Alps, the Andes, and the Himalayas.

The extreme inequality of landslides

The lack of quality infrastructure and the impact of mass deforestation in Africa is also especially noticeable, given that the continent saw seven per cent of recorded landslide-related deaths occur during this time period.

Human Activity

A new study by researchers at UK's Sheffield University revealed for the first time that landslides resulting from human activity have increased over time. 

"We were aware that humans are placing increasing pressure on their local environment, but it was surprising to find clear trends within the database that fatal landslides triggered by construction, illegal hillcutting and illegal mining were increasing globally during the period of 2004 and 2016," says Melanie Froude, a postdoctoral researcher at Sheffield's Department of Geography and lead author of the study.

While the trend is global, Asia is the most affected continent: "All countries in the top 10 for fatal landslide triggered by human activity are located in Asia," says Froude. The number 1 country is India, which accounts for 20% of these events. It is also the country where human-triggered fatal landslides are increasing at the highest rate, followed by Pakistan, Myanmar and the Philippines.

Watch a Year's Worth of Carbon Dioxide Billow Around the Globe

This NASA visualization tracks 365 days of the planet's CO2 emissions. Called a "Nature Run," the visualization was created by a climate modeling program at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center.

The video covers January 1st to December 31, 2006, and it clearly shows that much of the world's CO2 comes from the heavily populated northern hemisphere. Periodically, the southern half of the world flares up, because of seasonal forest fires in central Africa, for example.

Further Details

Regional Powerhouses Driving the U.S. Economy

The concept of mega-regions dates back to 1957, when the economic geographer Jean Gottman coined the term “megalopolis” to describe the emerging economic hub that stretched from Boston to D.C. More than just a collection of cities or one giant city, a mega-region is greater than the sum of its parts.
U.S. East Coast at night
U.S. Mega-Region Population

U.S. Mega-Regions

Bos-Wash stretches from Boston through New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore to Washington, D.C., a total of 500 miles. If Bos-Wash were a separate country, it would be the fourth largest economy in the world, behind only the U.S., China, and Japan and ahead of Germany.

Chi-Pitts extends north and west from Pittsburgh through Cleveland, Detroit, Indianapolis, Chicago, and Minneapolis. Its economy is just a bit smaller than the United Kingdom’s, about the same size as Brazil’s, and bigger than all of Russia’s – equivalent to the world’s seventh largest nation.

Char-lanta, includes Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Birmingham, Alabama. Its economy is bigger that South Korea’s, placing it among the world’s fifteen largest economies.

So-Cal runs from L.A. through San Diego and spills into Tijuana, Mexico. Its economy is bigger than all of Mexico’s and just a bit smaller than Spain’s, also putting it among the world’s fifteen largest economies.

So-Flo includes Miami, Orlando and Tampa. It's economic output, makes it about the same size as the Netherlands or Turkey, and would therefore rank among the world’s twenty largest economies.

Nor-Cal includes 14 metros surrounding San Francisco Bay. It ranks among the world’s twenty largest economies.

Tor-Buff-Chester stretches north from Buffalo and Rochester, taking in Toronto, Ottawa and Montreal in Canada. It generates output of nearly $600 billion, more than Sweden, placing it among the world’s 25 largest economies.

Dal-Austin encompasses Dallas, Austin, and San Antonio, Texas. It produces more than $700 billion in economic output, more than Sweden or oil-rich Saudi Arabia. It also would rank among the 25 biggest economies in the world.

Hou-Orleans stretches from Houston through Mobile, Alabama to New Orleans. It produces more than $750 billion in economic output, about the same as the Netherlands, placing it among the world’s 25 largest economies.

The Cascadia mega-region stretches up from Portland, Oregon through Seattle and into Vancouver, Canada.  It generates economic output of about $600 billion, comparable to Switzerland, also placing it among the world’s top 25 nations.

The Phoenix-Tucson region's economic output is just slightly less than Hong Kong. This makes it one of the fifty largest economies in the world.

The Denver-Boulder region's economic output is more than Finland, Greece or Ireland. If it were a nation, it would also rank among the world’s 50 largest economies.

Condensed from this Article >>

The Northwest Angle (who knew?)!

This is interesting... Who knew about this little chunk of land and lake? Although part of the United States, it is only accessible by land through Canada!

In 1783, Britain and the U.S. agreed on the new border based on a map maker's error about the source of the Mississippi River, which was used to help draw the boundary.
Details on the Wikipedia page >>